General Rubrics of the Roman Missal

I - General Notions and Norms 269-273

II - The Calendar to be Followed in the Celebration of the Mass 274-284

III - The Conventual Mass 285-297

IV - The Mass on Sundays and Ferias 298-300

V - Festive Masses. 301-305

VI - Votive Masses 306-389

VII - Masses of the Dead 390-423

VIII - The Various Parts of the Mass 424-510
VIII A. The psalm Iudica me, Deus, the Confiteor and the incensing of the altar 424-426
VIII B. The Antiphon at the Introit and the Kyrie, Eleison 427-430
VIII C. The Hymn Gloria in excelsis 431-432
VIII D. The Collects 433-465
VIII E. The Lessons and the Rest up to the Gospel 466-474
VIII F. The Creed 475-475
VIII G. The Antiphon at the Offertory and the Secret Prayers 477-481
VIII H. The Preface 482-499
VIII I. The Canon of the Mass and the Rest to the Postcommunion 500-506
VIII L. The Conclusion of the Mass 507-510

IX - What Is to be said aloud and what quietly in the Mass 511-516

X - The Order of Kneeling, Sitting and Standing at Mass 517-524

XI - The Prepartation of the Altar for Mass 525-530

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I - General Notions and Norms

269. The most holy sacrifice of the Mass, celebrated according to the canons and rubrics, is an act of public worship, rendered to God in the name of Christ and of the Church. Hence, the expression “private Mass” is to be avoided.

270. The Mass with the divine office constitutes the highest expression of Christian worship. Hence, the Mass itself should agree with the office of the day.
Masses outside the order of the office are also allowed, however, namely votive Masses or Masses of the dead.

271. There are two kind of Masses: sung Mass and low Mass. A Mass is called sung if the celebrating priest actually sings the parts which are to be sung by him according to the rubrics. Otherwise it is called low.
Further, the sung Mass (in cantu), if it is celebrated with the assistance of sacred ministers, is called a solemn Mass; if it is celebrated without sacred ministers, it is called simply sung Mass (cantata).
Finally, a solemn Mass which is celebrated by a bishop or by another who has the faculty, with the solemnities prescribed in the liturgical books, is called a pontifical Mass.

272. Of its nature the Mass demands that all those present take part in it, after the manner proper to them.
A choice must be made, however, among the various ways in which the faithful may take part actively in the most holy sacrifice of the Mass, in such a way that any danger of abuse may be removed, and the special aim of the participation may be realized, namely a fuller measure of worship offered to God and of edification obtained for the faithful.
This active participation of the faithful has been dealt with at greater length in the Instruction, Sacred Music and the Sacred Liturgy, given by the Sacred Congregation of Rites on September 3, 1958.

273. The following rubrics apply both to sung Masses and to low Masses, unless a more restricted application is expressly indicated.

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II - The Calendar to be Followed in the Celebration of the Mass

274. The Mass is to be said according to the calendar of the church or oratory in which the Mass is celebrated, or of the place, or of the celebrating priest himself, or of the universal Church, as explained below.

275. In a church or public oratory, any priest, whether diocesan or religious, is obliged to celebrate according to the calendar of that church or public oratory.
The same rule must be observed in the principal semi-public oratory of a seminary, religious house, college, hospital, prison and the like.

276. In secondary oratories of a seminary, religious house, college, hospital, prison and the like, any priest may follow either the calendar of that oratory or his own.

277. In private oratories, and when he celebrates on a portable altar outside of a sacred place, any priest may follow either the calendar of the place or his own.

278. Every priest, even if he would otherwise be permitted to follow his own calendar, must celebrate the Mass of feasts of a principal patron of the nation, of the region or province, whether ecclesiastical or civil, of the diocese, of the town or city, as well as the Mass of the anniversary of the dedication of the cathedral church and the Mass of other feasts actually kept as holidays, if there are any such.

279. An oratory definitely established on a ship is a public oratory; and the calendar of the universal Church is to be followed in it. When anyone celebrates on a portable altar outside of any oratory of this kind, however, he may follow either the calendar of the universal Church or his own calendar. The same holds for one who celebrates lawfully during a journey by air, river or railroad.

280. In diocesan seminaries and diocesan colleges of clerics, in charge of religious, and also in interdiocesan, regional, national and international seminaries and college of clerics, likewise in charge of religious, the same calendar is followed which is prescribed for the recitation of the divine office in common (nos. 154-155).

281. In interprovincial, national and international colleges and houses of religious, the calendar proper to the whole order or congregation is to be followed (no. 55), with the addition only of the feasts specified in no. 57.

282. The diocesan calendar, with the addition of the feasts proper to the place and to the church or oratory, must be followed:
    a) in cathedral churches, even if they are in charge of religious;
    b) in churches and oratories assigned to the diocesan clergy, even if they have a choir of religious attached, which communicates with the church only through a grating;
    c) in churches and oratories of religious of either sex who do not have a calendar of their own, with their own proper and indult feasts added, however;
    d) in churches and principal oratories of religious which are in charge of the diocesan clergy or which have a choir of canons attached; but not if the church or oratory has been committed to some one priest in particular;
    e) in the church and principal oratory of a seminary, even if it is in charge of religious, but with the faculty granted of adding the feasts specified in no. 154.

283. A religious calendar, with the edition of the feasts specified in no. 57 and of the feasts proper to a church or oratory, must be followed:
   a) in churches and principal oratories of religious who have a calendar of their own, even if they are parish churches;
   b) in churches and oratories of the diocesan clergy which are in charge of religious or which serve those religious for the public recitation of the divine office, even if they are parish churches; but not if the church or oratory has been committed to some one religious in particular;
   c) in churches and oratories of tertiaries of either sex, even if they recite only the little office of the Blessed Virgin Mary;
   d) in secondary oratories of a seminary in charge of religious, if these oratories serve only those religious.

284. A priest who celebrates in a church or oratory where a different rite prevails, must keep to the calendar of that church or oratory with regard to the feasts and their rank, the commemorations and the collect imperata. As to the order of the Mass, however, he should take the variable parts proper to the rite of that church and keep the ceremonies and ordinary of his own rite.

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III - The Conventual Mass

285. By “conventual Mass” is meant the Mass which is to be celebrated daily in connection with the divine office by those who are bound to choir by the laws of the Church.

286. On each day only one conventual Mass is to be said, which must agree with the office recited in choir, except on the days specified below in nos. 289-294.
The obligation remains in force, however, of celebrating other Masses in choir, by reason of pious foundations or some other legitimate cause.

287. The conventual Mass is to be said after terce unless the superior of the community for a serious reason judges that it should be said after sext or none.
On the vigil of Pentecost the conventual Mass is said after none.

288. Of itself, the conventual Mass should be solemn, or at least sung. But where particular laws or particular indults have dispensed from the solemnity of the Mass in choir, it is fitting that the choir members contribute direct liturgical participation to the low conventual Mass, reciting at least parts of the ordinary of the Mass. Further, the choir members are forbidden to continue their canonical hours as a choir during the conventual Mass.

289. On all ferias of the 4th class, unless there is an order to the contrary, one of the following may be said, with a commemoration of the occurring feria, in place of the conventual Mass corresponding to the office:
   a) a Mass corresponding to a commemoration which happens to occur in the office of the day;
   b) the Mass of a mystery, saint or blessed mentioned that day in the martyrology or in an appendix of the martyrology approved for the respective churches;
   c) one of the votive Masses distributed through the week in the missal for the conventual Mass;
   d) any other Mass which may be celebrated as votive.

290. Except during Christmastide and Paschaltide, a conventual Mass for deceased priests, benefactors and others:
   a) must be said in every month except November on the first feria of the 4th class;
   b) may be said every week on the first feria of the 4th class.
The “daily” Mass with the collect Deus, veniae largitor (O God who grantest forgiveness) is taken.

291. On the days of the greater and lesser litanies, where there is a procession, or where there are other special supplications, the conventual Mass must be of the rogations (nos. 346-347).

292. On the day of the coronation of the pope, and on the anniversaries of the pope and of the diocesan bishop, the conventual Mass in cathedral and collegiate churches is the Mass of those anniversaries, according to nos. 362-363.

293. On the anniversary of the most recently deceased bishop, and also on the anniversary which is celebrated within the eighth day after the commemoration of all the faithful departed for the souls of all the deceased bishops and of all the deceased canons of the cathedral church, the conventual Mass in the cathedral itself is the Mass of those anniversaries.

294. On the anniversaries of all the departed of any chapter or of any order of congregation with the obligation of choir, the Mass of those anniversaries is said for the conventual Mass.

295. On the commemoration of all the faithful departed, the Mass printed as the first for that day is to be used for the conventual Mass; and choir members are obliged to take part in that Mass only.

296. On the feast of Christmas two conventual Masses are said in choir, namely one at night and the other in the daytime.

297. When a bishop celebrates Mass solemnly or assists at it, or when a Mass is sung in choir which does not correspond to the office, by reason of some external solemnity, the choir members are obliged to take part in this Mass only, even if it is not applied for their benefactors; but the law must be observed that another Mass be applied by the one whose duty this is.

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IV - The Mass on Sundays and Ferias.

298. All Sundays, whether of the 1st or the 2nd class, have a proper Mass. The Sundays after Epiphany which are transferred between the Twenty-third and the Twenty-fourth Sunday after Pentecost, however, take the antiphons at the introit, the offertory and the communion, as well as the gradual and the alleluia with its verse, from the Twenty-third Sunday after Pentecost, keeping their own collects, epistle and gospel.

299. Similarly, all ferias of Lent and Passiontide and the ember days of Advent and of September have a proper Mass. On the rest of the ferias the Mass of the preceding Sunday is said, and from this Mass also the collects are taken whenever the feria is to be commemorated, unless the rubrics provide otherwise.

300. On Ember Saturdays and on Sitientes Saturday (of the 4th week in Lent), the Mass during which holy orders are conferred is to be of the Saturday, even if a feast of the 1st or 2nd class occurs.

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V - Festive Masses.

301. The Mass of a feast, in the proper sense, is understood to be the Mass of the mystery, saint or blessed celebrated according to the order of the office.

302. In a broader sense, however, the following are also called Masses of a feast:
   a) the Mass of a 3rd class feast impeded by another feast of the same rank;
   b) the Mass of a commemoration occurring in the office of the day;
   c) the Mass of a mystery, saint or blessed whose entry is given on that day in the martyrology or in an appendix to the martyrology approved for the respective churches.

303. The festive Masses listed in the preceding section enjoy all the liturgical privileges to which they would be entitled if the feast were being celebrated with its whole office. However:
   a) the Mass of an impeded feast of the 3rd class can be said on its day only if the impeding feast is also of the 3rd class;
   b) the Mass of a commemoration occurring in the office of the day, and the Mass of a mystery, saint or blessed whose entry is given on that day in the martyrology or in an appendix to the martyrology approved for the respective churches, can be said only if a liturgical day of the 4th class occurs.

304. The Masses which are called festive in a broader sense are prohibited in churches having only one Mass:
   a) whenever there is an obligation of a conventual Mass which cannot be satisfied by another priest, unless the Mass can be said as conventual according to no. 289;
   b) whenvever the Mass of the rogations is to be said on the days of the litanies, according to the rubrics.

305. The following rules are to be observed for choosing the formula of a festive Mass outside of the conventual Mass:
   a) for feasts which are given in the proper of saints, the Mass indicated on the feast day in the missal is taken. In the place of Masses from the common, however, a proper Mass may be taken, at the choice of the celebrant, if there is a proper Mass among the “Masses for certain places.”
   b) For feasts which are not given in the proper of the saints, a Mass is taken from the common. When there are several formulas in the same common, the choice is up to the celebrating priest. And in the different commons the epistles and gospels given in the Masses themselves or at the end of the whole common may be taken in any Mass of that common.

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VI - Votive Masses

A. Votive Masses in General

306. The term “votive Mass” refers to a Mass which is said outside of the order of the office or of the commemoration of the current day, and is not a mystery or a saint whose entry is given on that day in the martyrology.

307. A votive Mass may be:
   a) of the mysteries of the Lord;
   b) of the Blessed Virgin Mary;
   c) of the angels;
   d) of the saints;
   e) for various occasions and intentions.

308. The following may be celebrated as votive Masses of the mysteries of the Lord:
   a) in the universal Church:
     1) of the Most Holy Trinity;
     2) of the Most Holy Name of Jesus;
     3) of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus;
     4) of the Most Precious Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ;
     5) of Christ the King;
     6) of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist;
     7) of our Lord Jesus Christ, eternal High Priest;
     8) of the holy cross;
     9) of the Passion of our Lord;
     10) of the Holy Family, Jesus, Mary and Joseph;
     11) of the Holy Spirit;
   b) in individual churches, besides the Masses mentioned above, all Masses of feasts of the Lord which are inscribed in the particular calendars, and other votive Masses specially granted.
Masses which refer to mysteries of the life of our Lord, however, cannot be celebrated as votive.

309. The following may be celebrated as votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary:
   a) in the universal Church, the Masses assigned in the missal according to the various seasons for the Saturday celebration of the Blessed Virgin, and also all Masses of feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary which are inscribed in the universal calendar;
   b) in individual churches, besides the Masses mentioned above, all Masses of feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary which are inscribed in the particular calendars, and other votive Masses specially granted.
If any of the parts to be varied according to the different seasons of the year are lacking in these Masses, they are taken from the common of feasts of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Except for the Mass of the Immaculate Conception, however, Masses which refer to the mysteries of the life of the Blessed Virgin Mary cannot be celebrated as votive.

310. The following may be celebrated as votive Masses of angels:
   a) Masses of the individual feasts of holy angels;
   b) The votive Mass of the holy angels assigned to Tuesday.

311. It is permissible to celebrate as votive Masses of saints the Masses of any canonized saint having an entry in the Roman martyrology, or in an appendix to the martyrology approved for the respective churches.

312. Votive Masses of blessed are permitted, by apostolic indult, only in the triduum which is celebrated in their honor within a year from their beatification.

313. Votive Masses “for various occasions and intentions” (ad diversa) are given in the missal or in an appendix to the missal approved for certain churches, to be celebrated on special occasions or in view of special needs.

314. For a votive Mass of mysteries of the Lord the Mass of the respective feast is taken, unless it is expressly indicated that another is to be used; or a special votive Mass.

315. For a votive Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of angels and of saints, the Mass of the respective feast is taken if one is given in the missal, whether in the proper of the saints or among the Masses “for certain places,” unless another Mass is expressly indicated in the missal as the votive Mass.
But if the feast is not in the missal, a Mass is taken from the common. When there are several formulas in the same common, the choice is up to the celebrating priest. And in the different commons the epistles and gospels given in the Masses themselves or at the end of the whole common may be taken in any Mass of that common.
The rubrics are to be observed, however, with regard to the changing of some parts or words, according to the seasons of the year and according for the purely votive character of this Mass.

316. For any peculiar necessity the proper votive Mass is taken if one is given in the missal. If none is given, the “Mass for any necessity” is taken, and collects appropriate to the necessity in question are used instead of the collects of this Mass, if they are found among the “various collects.”

317. Any votive Mass of the mysteries of the Lord, of the Blessed Virgin Mary or of a saint, is prohibited whenever a liturgical day of the 1st or 2nd class occurs on which the office is of the same person. Then the Mass of the current office is to be said instead of the votive Mass. But when the liturgical day of the 3rd or 4th class occurs, either the Mass of the office of the day or the votive Mass may be chosen, with no commemoration of the other.

318. The collect of an impeded votive Mass is added under a single conclusion to the collect of the Mass of the day only if the votive Mass is of the 1st or 2nd class, and only if a day listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence does not occur.
Of an impeded votive Mass of the 3rd class there is nothing in the Mass of the current office.

319. The rules established below (nos. 330b, 343b, 386b, 389b) for the different classes of votive Masses are to be observed in admitting and ordering the collects in votive Masses.

320. Directions concerning the Gloria and the creed in votive Masses are given in the respective places, when the questions of the different classes of votive Masses are taken up, and below at nos. 431-432 and 475-476.

321. If there is a sequence, it is omitted in votive Masses.

322. The preface which is proper to each votive Mass is said. If there is no proper preface, the preface of the season or the common preface is said, according to the general rules.

323. The color of vestments in votive Masses should be the color appropriate to each Mass; but in nonconventual low votive Masses of the 4th class, it is also permissible to use the color of the office of the day, provided, however, that violet and black are reserved solely to the Masses to which they belong of themselves.

324. Unless particular rubrics prescribe otherwise, a votive Mass may be either a sung Mass or a low Mass.

325. Votive Masses are of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th class. The classes are considered individually in the following sections.

326. Any votive Mass whatsoever is prohibited in churches having only one Mass:
   a) whenever there is the obligation of a conventual Mass which cannot be satisfied by another priest, except for those votive Masses which can (no.289) or must (nos. 290-294) be said for the conventual Mass on certain days;
   b) on February 2, if the blessing of candles takes place;
   c) on the greater and lesser litanies, if the Mass of the rogations is to be said (no. 346).

327. Whenever a Mass is indicated in the rubrics or in a special indult as a votive Mass of a certain class, it is to be arranged according to the rules and privileges established for that class of votive Masses.

B. Votive Masses of the First Class

I - Votive Masses of the First Class in General

328. By a votive Mass of the 1st class is meant a votive Mass which may be celebrated on all liturgical days except those listed under nos. 1-8 in the tabele of precedence; the prescription at no. 332 is observed, however.

329. Votive Masses of the 1st Class, provided for by the general rubrics, are:
   a) Masses of the dedication in the actual consecration of a church (nos. 331-334); b) Sung Masses of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist, in the more solemn celebrations of a Eucharistic congress (no. 335);
   c) Sung Masses of mysteries of the Lord, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of a saint or blessed, on the occasion of an extraordinary celebration (no. 340a).

330. The privileges of votive Masses of the 1st class are:
   a) they are said with Gloria and creed;
   b) they exclude all nonprivileged commemorations, and a collect ordered by the local ordinary;
   c) the collect of the impeded votive Mass is added under a single conclusion to the collect of the Mass of the day, provided a day listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence does not occur;
   d) if they are sung, the solemn tone is used.

II - Masses of the Dedication in the Actual Consecration of a Church

331. Although the consecration of churches may be done by right on any day, it is more appropriate that it be done on Sundays and feast days. It is prohibited, however, on the vigil and the feast of Christmas, on the feasts of the Lord’s Epiphany and Ascension and of Corpus Christi, on the days from the Second Sunday of the Passion or Palm Sunday to Easter Sunday inclusive, on Pentecost Sunday, and on the day of the commemoration of all the faithful departed.

332. The Mass of the dedication in the actual consecration of a church or oratory is a part of the whole rite of consecration. Hence, it is to be celebrated whenever a church or oratory is consecrated, even on the days on which other votive Masses of the 1st class are prohibited.

333. In the Mass of the dedication of the actual consecration of a church, the collect of the mystery or saint in whose honor the church or oratory is being consecrated is added under a single conclusion, and no other commemoration, even a privileged one, is admitted.

334. Other Masses celebrated in the church or oratory on the day of the consecration, after the rite is over, may be said of the dedication, as votive Masses of the 1st class.

III - Masses at Euchartistic Congresses

335. On each day of a diocesan, regional, national or international Eucharistic congress, the principal Mass celebrated, provided it is sung, may be of the Blessed Sacrament, as a votive Mass of the 1st class.

336. In the rest of the public celebrations of the same congresses, the Mass of the Blessed Sacrament may be celebrated as a votive Mass of the 2nd class.

337. The individual priests who take part in the Eucharistic congress may celebrate the Mass of the Blessed Sacrament as a votive Mass of the 3rd class.

IV - Votive Masses in Certain Extraordinary Celebrations

338. The privileges indicated in this paragraph apply to Masses:
   a) in the triduum or the octave which is celebrated in honor of any saint or blessed within a year from the canonization or beatification;
   b) in certain extraordinary celebrations prolonged for a triduum or an octave, for example, on the occasion of a centennial. Extraordinary celebrations in honor of blessed are excluded, however.

339. A special indult of the Holy See is required for conducting the celebrations specified in the preceding section.

340. On each day of these celebrations there is permitted:
   a) a single sung Mass of the mystery of the Lord, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of the saint or blessed in whose honor the celebrations are being held, as a votive Mass of the 1st class;
   b) all low Masses, as above, as votive Masses of the 2nd class.

C. Votive Masses of the Second Class

I - Votive Masses of the 2nd Class in General

341. By a votive Mass of the 2nd class is meant a votive Mass which may be celebrated on all liturgical days of the 2nd , 3rd and 4th class. The Mass for bride and bridegroom and the Mass of thanksgiving on the 25th or 50th wedding anniversary are prohibited, however, on all Sundays.

342. Votive Masses of the 2nd class, provided for by the general rubrics, are:
   a) the Mass at the solemn blessing of a church or oratory, and at the consecration of an altar (no. 345);
   b) the Mass of the rogations on the greater and lesser litanies (nos 346-347); c) votive Masses on the occasion of the Forty Hours devotion or some other exposition of the Blessed Sacrament (nos. 348-355);
   d) Masses of the external solemnity of feasts (nos. 356-361);
   e) The Mass on the day of the coronation of the pope and on the anniversaries of the pope and of the diocesan bishop (nos. 362-365);
   f) A Mass for a matter of public importance (pro re gravi et publica simul causa) (nos. 366-368);
   g) The Mass “for the propagation of the Faith” (no. 369);
   h) Masses on certain special occasions (nos. 370-372);
   i) Votive Masses at shrines (nos. 373-377);
   j) The votive Mass “for Bride and Bridegroom” and the Mass of thanksgiving on the 25th and 50th wedding anniversary (nos. 378-382).

343. The privileges of votive Masses of the 2nd class are:
   a) they are said Gloria, unless violet vestments are used; but without creed, unless it is said by reason of an occurring Sunday or octave;
   b) they admit of only one commemoration, and they exclude a collect ordered by the local ordinary;
   c) the collect of the impeded votive Mass is added under a single conclusion to the collect of the Mass of the day, provided a day listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence does not occur; the prescription at no. 380 is observed, however;
   d) if they are sung , the solemn tone is used.

344. Votive Masses of the 2nd class are governed by the general norms mentioned in no. 343; but the things proper to each Mass are indicated below.

II - The Votive Mass at the Solemn Blessing of a Church or Oratory, and at the Consecration of an Altar

345. At the solemn blessing of a church or oratory, and at the consecration of an altar, when the rite is over, there is said as a votive Mass of the 2nd class the Mass of the mystery or the saint in whose honor the church or oratory has been blessed, or the altar has been consecrated.

III - The Mass of Rogations on the Greater and Lesser Litanies

346. On the greater and the lesser litanies (nos. 80-90), in churches in which there is a procession or in which special supplications are held by order of the local ordinary (no. 83), the Mass of the rogations is said as a votive Mass of the 2nd class (see no. 86).

347. The Mass of Rogations, or the Mass of the day which takes the place of the impeded votive Mass, is considered a part of the whole liturgical service; and it is said regularly after the procession is over, or after the special supplications are over.

IV - Votive Masses on the Occasion of the Forty Hours Devotion, or Some Other Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament

348. For the exposition and the reposition of the Blessed Sacrament for the Forty Hours devotion, whether continuous or interrupted, the Mass of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist is sung as a votive Mass of the 2nd class at the altar of the exposition.

349. On the middle day of the exposition, at an altar where the Blessed Sacrament is not exposed, either the Mass of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist or another votive Mass suitable to the special needs of the place may be sung as a votive Mass of the 2nd class.

350. On days on which votive Masses of the 4th class are permitted by the rubrics, it is fitting that Masses celebrated in a church in which the Forty Hours devotion is being held be of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist.

351. On the commemoration of all the faithful departed:
   a) the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament should follow, but the reposition should precede, the sung Mass or principal Mass;
   b) during the time of the exposition, the Masses of the office of the day are said with violet vestments, and not at the altar of the exposition.

352. On February 2, Ash Wednesday and the Second Passion Sunday or Palm Sunday, if there is the blessing of candles, ashes or palms respectively, if the Blessed Sacrament has been exposed for the adoration of the Forty Hours, the procedure is this. At the time of the blessing and the procession or the imposition of ashes, either the Blessed Sacrament is transferred to another altar at which the adoration can be continued without detriment to the piety of the faithful, or the Blessed Sacrament is put away, and the adoration is resumed after the blessing and the procession or the imposition of ashes together with the Mass. And this procedure may fittingly be observed also on the commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, for the principal Mass of the day and the subsequent absolution at the catafalque.

353. For the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament for public adoration which lasts for one day, the Mass of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist may be said as a votive Mass of the second class.

354. For the exposition of the Blessed Sacrament for public adoration which lasts only for some hours, however, the Mass of the day is said without any commemoration of the Blessed Sacrament.
On days on which votive Masses of the 4th class are permitted, however, it is more fitting that the Mass of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist be said.

355. In Masses celebrated by indult at the altar of exposition during the adoration, the collect of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist is added under a single conclusion, provided it is not a Sunday and there is neither office nor Mass nor commemoration of Christ the Lord.

V - Votive Masses on the External Solemnity of Feasts

356. The “external solemnity” of any feast means the celebration of the feast without an office, for the good of the faithful, either on the day on which the feast is impeded, or on a Sunday when the feast occurs during the week, or on some other established day.

357. An external solemnity either belongs to a feast by right or is granted by a special indult.

358. An external solemnity belongs by right only to:
   a) the feast of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, on the 3rd Sunday after Pentecost;
   b) the feast of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the rosary, on the first Sunday of October;
   c) feasts of the 1st or 2nd class which are connected with some special liturgical service, if that liturgical service is transferred to a Sunday with the approval of the Holy See, only for the Mass which is celebrated in connection with the aforesaid liturgical service;
   d) the feast of a duly constituted principal patron;
   e) the anniversary of the dedication of the church itself in which the Mass is said;
   f) the titular feast of the church itself;
   g) the titular feast of the order or congregation;
   h) the feast of the holy founder of the order or congregation;
   i) feast of the 1st and 2nd class which are celebrated with an especially large attendance by the faithful; of this matter the local ordinary is the judge.

359. If an external solemnity belongs to a feast by right, and is not among those for which a certain day is assigned no. 358 above, it may be held either on the day on which the feast is impeded or on the Sunday immediately preceding or immediately following the office of the impeded feast, according to the rubrics.
If it is granted by a special indult, however, an external solemnity is assigned a definite day.

360. One sung and one low Mass, or two low Masses, as votive Masses of the 2nd class, may be celebrated of the feast whose external solemnity is being held, except for the case specified in no. 358c.

361. The external solemnities granted by special indult to certain dioceses, churches or religious families before this date remain in force, with this restriction, however, that they are prohibited on liturgical days of the 1st class, and that never more than two Masses of the same solemnity may be celebrated.

VI - Votive Masses on the Day of the Coronation of the Pope

362. On the day of the coronation of the pope; on the anniversary of the coronation of the pope; on the anniversary of the election or of the consecration or of the transferal of the diocesan bishop (once, that is, on the day chosen by the bishop himself), for the conventual Mass in cathedral and collegiate churches, the proper votive Mass is said after the manner of votive Masses of the 2nd class.

363. If this votive Mass is impeded, however, the following rules are observed:
   a) if the anniversary of the coronation of the pope is permanently impeded for the universal Church, or if the anniversary of the bishop is permanently impeded for the whole diocese, it is reassigned permanently to the next day following which is not similarly impeded. The anniversary of the diocesan bishop is similarly reassigned if the day of the coronation of the pope or its anniversary occurs in the same day;
   b) If they are only accidentally impeded by a day listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence, they are transferred to the next day which is not of the 1st class.

364. On those days listed above in no. 362, in all churches and in all Masses except those of the dead, the collect for the pope or the collect for the bishop is added, as indicated below, no. 449. But this collect is transferred whenever the Mass is transferred in cathedral and collegiate churches.

365. One Mass “On the Anniversary of the Coronation of the Pope” is permitted, with the consent of the local ordinary, as a votive Mass of the 2nd class, in the individual churches, on a day on which special celebrations are held in honor of the pope.

VII - Votive Mass for a Matter of Public Importance

366. A votive Mass “for a matter of public importance” means a Mass which is celebrated with a large attendance of the people, by order of the local ordinary or with his consent, for some serious need or spiritual or temporal advantage which affects the community or a notable part of it.

367. Only one votive Mass for a serious matter is permitted in any one church; and the Mass corresponding to the need is taken, or, if there is no such Mass, the “Mass for Any Necessity,” according to what is indicated at no. 366, for his own parish.

VIII - The Mass “For the Propagation of the Faith”

369. One Mass “For the Propagation of the Faith” may be celebrated, as a votive Mass of the 2nd class, in the individual churches, on a day on which special celebrations are held for the missions, and on the occasion of a mission congress.

IX - Votive Mass on Certain Special Occasions

370. The Masses with which this section deals are concerned with special celebrations proper to certain particular groups or to only a part of the faithful.
Special celebrations of this kind are:
   a) for parishes: the beginning and the end of a mission for the people; major jubilees of the parish and of the pastor or of another priest living in the parish; extraordinary solemn celebrations, and the like;
   b) for schools, colleges, seminaries and other institutions of this kind: the beginning and the end of the scholastic year; extraordinary jubilees such as the fiftieth or the hundredth anniversary of their establishment;
   c) for religious houses: the solemnities of clothing or profession; the beginning and the end of a general or a provincial chapter; major jubilees of the order, of the province, of the house; the twenty-fifth or the fiftieth anniversary of a member’s profession or of his ordination to the priesthood;
   d) for various groups such as confraternities, pious societies, professional associations: annual general meetings; extraordinary meetings of several groups of the same kind; major jubilees and the like;
   e) for retreat houses: the beginning and the end of a course of retreats or of an extraordinary gathering;
   f) for hospitals, camps, prisons and similar institutions: extraordinary religious celebrations, and other festivities to be celebrated in an extraordinary way or at an extraordinary time.

371. A Mass of this kind, a single Mass for the individual occasion, is a votive Mass of the 2nd class, and is celebrated either by order of the respective ordinary or with his consent.

372. A suitable Mass is chosen to be celebrated on these occasions, according to the different kinds of occasions; for example, of the Holy Spirit, of thanksgiving, of some mystery of the Lord, of the Blessed Virgin Mary, of a saint, or from among the votive Masses for various intentions and occasions.

X - Votive Masses at Shrines

373. A “shrine” means a church or a sacred edifice dedicated to the public offering of divine worship, which for some special reason conducive to piety has been chosen by the faithful as a goal of pilgrimages for the purpose of imploring graces or fulfilling vows. The special motive of piety may be, for example, a sacred image venerated there, a relic kept there, a miracle which God has worked there, a special indulgence to be gained there.

374. Votive Masses granted or to be granted in the future by indult of the Holy See to shrines or other places of piety are votive Masses of the second class.

375. A votive Mass may be celebrated at all the altars of the shrine on each day on which votive Masses of the 2nd class are permitted, but only by pilgrim priests, or whenever the Mass is said on behalf of the pilgrims.

376. Similarly, in places of piety a votive Mass may be celebrated as a votive Mass of the 2nd class by priests visiting that place of piety.

377. Aside from the cases specified in nos. 375 and 376, a votive Mass may be celebrated only as a votive Mass of the 4th class.

XI - The Votive Mass “For Bride and Bridegroom” and the Mass of Thanksgiving on the 25th and 50th Wedding Anniversary

378. The votive Mass “For Bride and Bridegroom,” or at least its collect in the Mass of the day which impedes it, is permitted whenever a wedding is celebrated, whether outside of the closed time or even in the closed time, if the local ordinary for a good reason has permitted the solemn nuptial blessing.

379. Besides the days on which votive Masses of the 2nd class are prohibited, the Mass “For Bride and Bridegroom” is prohibited also on Sundays and whenever, according to no. 381c, the nuptial blessing cannot be given.

380. Whenever the Mass “For Bride and Bridegroom,” but not the nuptial blessing, is prohibited, the Mass of the office of the day is said, and to its collect is added under a single conclusion the collect of the impeded votive Mass, even on those days on which, according to no. 343c, a commemoration of an impeded votive Mass of the 2nd class is prohibited; and the nuptial blessing is given in the usual way in the Mass of the day.
But when both the Mass “For the Bride and Bridegroom” and the nuptial blessing are prohibited, the Mass together with the blessing may be transferred to a timely unimpeded day, after the marriage has been celebrated.

381. With regard to the Mass “For the Bride and Bridegroom” and the nuptial blessing, these points shall also be observed:
   a) The nuptial blessing is inseparable from the Mass. Hence, it cannot be given outside of the Mass, unless by apostolic indult; in which case it is to be imparted according to the formula which is found in the Roman ritual, tit. 8, ch. 3;
   b) The nuptial blessing within the Mass must be given by the priest who is celebrating the Mass, even if another priest has presided over the marriage;
   c) The nuptial blessing is omitted if the spouses are not present; and it is omitted if both of them or one of them has already received the blessing. Wherever the custom prevails, however, of imparting the blessing if only the man has received it, that custom may be retained;
   d) On the commemoration of All the Faithful Departed and during the sacred triduum, the votive Mass and its commemoration in the Mass of the day and the nuptial blessing within the Mass are all prohibited.

382. For thanksgiving on the 25th or 50th wedding anniversary, either the Mass of the Most Holy Trinity or a Mass of the Blessed Virgin Mary may be said as a votive Mass of the 2nd class, the collect for thanksgiving being added under a single conclusion with the first collect.
After the Mass, the prayers found in the Roman ritual tit. 8, ch. 7, are said over the couple.

XII - Certain other Votive Masses of the 2nd

383. Aside from the votive Masses of the 2nd class listed in the preceding sections, the votive low Masses must be recalled which are permitted as votive Masses of the 2nd class in the celebration of a Eucharistic congress (no. 336) and in certain extraordinary celebrations (no. 340-b).

D. Votive Masses of the 3rd Class

384. By a votive Mass of the 3rd class is meant a votive Mass which may be celebrated on liturgical days of the 3rd and 4th class.

385. Votive Masses of the 3rd class, provided for by the general rubrics, are:
   a) one Mass of our Lord Jesus Christ, eternal High Priest, on the first Thursday or the first Saturday of each month, in churches and oratories in which special devotions are held on that day for the sanctification of the clergy;
   b) two Masses of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, on the first Friday of each month, in churches and oratories in which special devotions are held on that day in honor of the Sacred Heart;
   c) one Mass of the Immaculate Heart of the Blessed Virgin Mary, on the first Saturday of each month, in churches and oratories in which special devotions are held on that day in honor of the Immaculate Heart of Mary.
To these should be added the Mass of the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist which is permitted to the individual priests on the days of a Eucharistic congress (no. 337).

386. The plan for votive Masses of the 3rd class is this:
   a) they are said with Gloria, but always without creed;
   b) they admit of two commemorations, or one commemoration and a collect ordered by the local ordinary;
   c) if they are sung, the solemn tone is used;
   d) whenever they are prohibited, they are not commemorated in the Mass of the day.

E. Votive Masses of the 4th Class

387. A votive Mass of the 4th class is a votive Mass which may be celebrated only on liturgical days of the 4th class.

388. For a votive Mass of the 4th class any Mass permitted by the rubrics as a votive Mass may be taken. A just cause is required, however, namely the need, utility or devotion of celebrating priest or of the faithful.

389. In the arrangement of a votive Mass of the 4th class the following points are to be observed:
   a) the Gloria is not said, except in the Mass of the angels on any day, and in Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Saturday;
   b) besides the collect of the Mass, two other collects may be said, among which are to be numbered the commemoration of the office of the day or those occurring in the office of the day, and any collect ordered by the local ordinary, and any votive collect;
   c) the creed is always omitted;
   d) if the Mass is sung, the ferial tone is used.

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VII - Masses of the Dead

A. Masses of the Dead in General

390. The Masses for the dead which are celebrated on the commemoration of all the faithful departed are according to the order of the office; all other Masses for the dead are outside the order of the office.

391. In Masses of the dead no commemoration is made of the office of the current day.

392. Masses of the dead are of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th class. The following sections deal with the different classes.

393. Any Mass of the dead whatsoever, including the funeral Mass, is prohibited:
   a) in churches and oratories where for any reason there is exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, for the whole time of the exposition; the Masses on the day of the commemoration of All the Faithful Departed are excepted (no. 352);
   b) in churches having only one Mass, whenever there is an obligation of a conventual Mass which cannot be satisfied by another priest; unless the conventual Mass itself must be said or may be said for the departed;
   c) in churches having only one Mass, on February 2 and on Ash Wednesday, if there is the blessing of candles and of ashes respectively; and on the greater and lesser litanies, if the Mass of the rogation is to be said.

394. The first of those which are given for the commemoration of all the faithful departed is taken, with the proper collects assigned in the missal among the “various prayers” for the departed:
   a) for a departed pope, for departed cardinals, bishops and priests in all Masses of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd class;
   b) on the anniversaries of all the departed of any clerical order or congregation.

395. The Mass is entitled “On the Day of Death or Burial” is said for the departed who are not priests:
   a) as the funeral Mass;
   b) as Masses for the day of death;
   c) as the Mass after receiving news of the death;
   d) at the final burial of the departed;
   e) on the 3rd, 7th and 30th day, but with the proper collects.

396. The Mass which is entitled “On the Anniversary of the Departed” is taken on the anniversaries of the departed who are not priests.

397. The “daily” Mass is taken for all the departed of any order or rank outside of the days listed above.

398. With regard to the collects in Masses of the dead, the following rules are to be observed:
   a) all Masses of the dead, whether sung of low Masses, of themselves are said with a single collect, unless a collect ordered (imperata) for the departed must be added according to no. 458, or a votive collect for the departed may be added according to no. 464;
   b) in 4th class Masses of the dead, if they are applied for certain of the departed, the appropriate collect is said, as in the missal among the various prayers for the departed; if they are applied for the departed in general, or if the designation is unknown, the collect Fidelium (O God, Creator and Redeemer of all the faithful), is said;
   c) in Masses of the Dead, any collect which is not for the departed is prohibited.

399. The sequence Dies irae:
   a) has to be said only in 1st class Masses of the dead; however, on the commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, when a priest celebrates three Masses without intermission, he has to say the sequence only in the principal Mass, or else in the first Mass; in other Masses, unless they are sung, he may omit it;
   b) may be omitted in 2nd, 3rd and 4th class Masses of the dead.

400. Any Mass for the dead may be either sung or low.

401. The absolution over the corpse or over a catafalque:
   a) must be held after a funeral Mass;
   b) may be held after the other Masses of the dead;
   c) may be held, for a good reason, even after Masses which are not of the dead.

B. First Class Masses of the Dead

I - First class Masses of the Dead in General

402. First class Masses of the Dead are:
   a) Masses of the day of the commemoration of all the faithful departed;
   b) The funeral Mass.

II - The Masses on the Day of the Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed

403. On the day of the commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, every priest may celebrate three Masses, as in the missal on this day.

404. In saying the Masses of this day, the following points are to be observed:
   a) one who celebrates only one Mass uses the first; one who celebrates two, the first and the second;
   b) one who celebrates a sung Mass or a conventual Mass uses the first, and is permitted to anticipate the second and the third;
   c) one who celebrates several sung Masses in different churches must always use the first;
   d) but if several Masses are sung in the same church, the first Mass is used first, then the second and finally the third.

III - The Funeral Mass

405. By a “funeral Mass” is understood the single Mass for the departed which is directly connected with the funeral of any departed person. Of itself this Mass is to be celebrated with the corpse present; but it may be also celebrated, for a good reason, even though the corpse is absent or already buried.

406. The funeral Mass is prohibited:
   a) on the days listed under nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 in the table of precedence;
   b) on holy days of obligation included among the feasts under no. 11 in the table of precedence;
   c) on the anniversary of the dedication and on the titular feast of the church in which the funeral is held;
   d) on the feast of a principal patron of a town or city;
   e) on the titular feast and the feast of the holy founder of the order or congregation to whom the church belongs in which the funeral is held.

407. If the office of any feast specified in no. 406 is to be accidentally transferred to another day according to the rubrics, the funeral Mass is prohibited on the day on which the feast is impeded; but if the external solemnity of any feast is held on Sunday, the funeral Mass is prohibited on the day on which the external solemnity is held, but not on the feast day.

408. On the commemoration of All the Faithful Departed, the first Mass is taken for a funeral Mass, with the collects to be said in the funeral Mass for the respective departed person. But if the first Mass is celebrated for the office of the day, the second or finally the third Mass is taken for the funeral Mass.

C. Second Class Masses of the Dead in General

I - Second Class Masses of the Dead in General

410. Second Class Masses of the dead are:
   a) Masses for the day of death;
   b) The Mass after receiving news of the death;
   c) The Mass at the final burial of the deceased.

411. All 2nd class Masses of the dead are said as on the day of death; they are permitted, however, only if:
   a) they are applied for that departed person;
   b) a liturgical day of the 1st class or a Sunday does not occur.
If the Mass on the day of death is said after the eighth day from the day of death or burial, the adverb hodie (“today” or “this day”) is omitted from the collect and the postcommunion.

II - Masses for the Day of Death

412. By “Masses for the day of death” are meant Masses which are celebrated for any deceased person from the day of death until the day of burial:
   a) whether in a private oratory of the deceased himself, as long as the corpse is physically present in the house;
   b) or in the church or oratory of the place where the departed died, is being buried or had his residence;
   c) or in the church or oratory in which the funeral Mass is celebrated, even if it has been separated from the funeral.

III - The Mass after Receiving News of the Death

413. By the “Mass after receiving news of the death” is meant a single Mass which may be said for any deceased person in any church or oratory on a convenient day after news of the person’s death has been received.

IV - The Mass at the Final Burial of the Deceased

414. By the “Mass at the final burial of the deceased” is meant a single Mass which may be said in the church or oratory of that place where the body of a deceased person already buried is brought for final burial, on the day of that final burial.

D. Third Class Mass of the Dead

I - 3rd Class Mass of the Dead in General

415. Third class Masses of the Dead are:
   a) the Mass on the 3rd, 7th and 30th day from the death or burial;
   b) a Mass “on the anniversary”;
   c) Masses of the dead in cemetery churches and chapels;
   d) Masses of the dead within the octave of the commemoration of all the faithful departed.

II - The Mass on the 3rd, 7th and 30th Day from the Death or Burial

417. On the 3rd, 7th and the 30th day, counting from the death or the burial of the deceased, a single Mass for the deceased person may be said in any church or oratory as on the day of death, with the proper collects as found at the end of this Mass.
Whenever this Mass is impeded by rubrics, it may be transferred to the next day not so impeded.
There may be several Masses of this kind on days on which 4th class Masses of the dead are permitted.

III - The Mass “On the Anniversary”

418. “Anniversary” taken strictly means the yearly recurrence of the day of death or burial of any deceased person. Taken in a broad sense, however, it means either the anniversary to be celebrated once every year, as established by a “foundation,” outside of the day of death or burial, or a celebration which is held for all the departed of some group, likewise once a year, either on a day established by a “foundation” or by custom of the group or on a day to be established by the group or by the celebrating priest.

419. On these days, in any church or oratory, one Mass is permitted, to be said as on the anniversary; and whenever it is prohibited by the rubrics, it may be transferred to the next day not so impeded.
There may be several Masses of this kind on days on which 4th class Masses of the dead are permitted.

IV - Masses in Cemetery Churches and Chapels

420. By a cemetery church or chapel is meant:
   a) the church or the principal public oratory of a cemetery in which bodies are still being buried, as long as this church or oratory does not have a choir obligation or a pastoral duty (cura animarum) connected with it;
   b) a chapel of some particular burial place that has been duly erected within the boundaries of a cemetery.

421. As long as they are applied for the deceased, the Masses celebrated in these places may be Requiem Masses. The “daily Mass” is used, with the appropriate collect.

V - Masses of the Dead within the Octave of the Commemoration of All the Faithful Departed

422. Within eight days counted from the day of the commemoration of all the faithful departed inclusive, all Masses applied for all or certain ones of the deceased may be said as Requiem Masses. The “daily” Mass is used, with the appropriate collect.

E. Fourth Class or “Daily” Masses of the Dead

423. Fourth class Masses of the dead are other “daily” Masses of the dead, which may be celebrated instead of the Mass corresponding to the office of the day, only on ferias of the fourth class outside of Christmastide.
It is most fitting that these 4th class Masses of the dead be said only when they are really applied either for the deceased in general or for certain designated deceased persons.

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VIII - The Various Parts of the Mass

A. The psalm Iudica me, Deus, the Confiteor and the incensing of the altar

424. The psalm Iudica me, Deus with its antiphon, and the Confiteor with the absolution, are said before the steps of the altar in any Mass, whether sung or low. They are omitted, however, together with the subsequent verses and the prayers Aufer a nobis and Oramus te, Domine in:
   a) the Mass of the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary which follows the blessing of candles and the procession;
   b) the Mass of Ash Wednesday which is said after the blessing and the imposition of ashes; c) the Mass of the Second Passion Sunday or Palm Sunday which follows the blessing of branches and the procession;
   d) the Mass of the Easter Vigil;
   e) the Mass of the rogations which follows the procession of the greater or lesser litanies;
   f) certain Masses which follow certain consecrations in accordance with the rubrics of the Roman pontifical.

425. The psalm Iudica me, Deus is omitted:
   a) in Masses of the season from the First Sunday of the Passion to Thursday of the Lord’s Supper;
   b) in Masses of the dead.

426. The incensations which must be done in a solemn Mass may also be done in all sung Masses.

B. The Antiphon at the Introit and the Kyrie, Eleison

427. At the introit an antiphon is said with a verse of a psalm and the Gloria Patri and then the antiphon is repeated.
The antiphon at the introit with the psalm and the Gloria Patri is lacking, however, in the Mass of the Easter vigil.

428. The Gloria Patri at the introit is omitted in Masses of the season from the First Passion Sunday to Thursday of the Lord’s Supper, and in Masses of the dead.

429. In Paschaltide a double alleluia is added to the antiphon at the introit, unless it is already there. On the other hand, in any antiphon at the introit, the alleluia is omitted whenever the Mass is said outside of Paschaltide, unless an exception is indicated in certain Masses.

430. The Kyrie, eleison is said nine times after the repetition of the antiphon at the introit, that is, Kyrie, eleison, three times, Christe, eleison, three times and Kyrie, eleison, three times.<.p>

C. The Hymn Gloria in excelsis

431. The hymn Gloria in excelsis is said:
   a) in Masses corresponding to the office of the day, whenever the hymn Te Deum has been said at matins;
   b) in the festive Masses specified in no. 302;
   c) in the Masses of Thursday of the Lord’s Supper and in the Mass of the Easter vigil;
   d) in votive Masses of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd class, unless violet vestments are worn;
   e) in 4th class votive Masses of the angels on any day, and of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Saturday.

432. The hymn Gloria in excelsis is omitted:
   a) in Masses corresponding to the office of the day, when the hymn Te Deum is omitted at matins;
   b) in all Masses in which violet vestments are worn;
   c) in votive Masses of the 4th class except those specified in no. 431-e;
   d) in Masses of the dead.

D. The Collects

I - The Collects in General

433. By “collects” (orationes), in the Mass, are to be understood:
   a) the collect of the Mass which is being celebrated;
   b) the collects of an office commemorated and of any commemoration that occurs;
   c) other collects prescribed by the rubrics (nos. 447-453);
   d) a collect ordered (imperata) by the local ordinary (nos. 454-460);
   e) a votive collect, which may be said on certain liturgical days if the celebrating priest so chooses (nos. 461-465).

434. Included in the number of collects established for the different liturgical days are not only the collect of the Mass and the commemorations but also the other collects, whether prescribed by the rubrics, or ordered by the ordinary, or votive. After the collect of the Mass, then:
   a) on liturgical days of the 1st class, in votive Masses of the 1st class, and in non-conventual sung Masses, no other collect is admitted, except a collect to be said under a single conclusion and one privileged commemoration, the rule in 333 being observed;
   b) on Sundays of the 2nd class, no other collect is admitted, except the commemoration of a feast of the 2nd class, which is omitted, however, if a privileged commemoration is to be made;
   c) on other liturgical days of the 2nd class and in votive Masses of the 2nd class, only one other collect is admitted, namely either one privileged or one ordinary collect;
   d) on liturgical days of the 3rd and 4th class and in votive Masses of the 3rd and 4th class, only two other collects are admitted.

435. Any collect which exceeds the number established for the different liturgical days is omitted; certainly under no pretext is it permissible for the collects to exceed three in number.

436. The collect proper to the Mass is always said under its own conclusion, unless another collect is to be joined to it under the same conclusion, as will be said below in nos. 444-445.

437. Always said under one conclusion are:
   a) the commemorations to be made;
   b) a collect ordered by the local ordinary;
   c) a votive collect.

438. If two collects are composed of almost the same words in the first or second part, the second collect:
   a) if it is of the season, is changed to another of the following Sunday or feria;
   b) if it is of a saint, is changed to another of the same or a similar common;
   c) if it is an oratio imperata is omitted.

439. In collects of a transferred or re-assigned office, the words hanc or hodiernam or praesentem diem (“this day” or “today” or “this present day”) or the like are not to be changed.

440. Whenever the words Flectamus genua. Levate (Let us kneel. Arise), occur in the missal, they are to be pronounced by the deacon in a solemn Mass, by the celebrant in other Masses. After the Flectamus genua all kneel with the celebrant and pray silently for a while. When Levate is said, all rise, and the celebrant says the collect.

441. As to what collects and how many are said in Masses of the dead, the rules laid down in no. 398 are to be observed.

II - The Collects in Masses with Several Lessons

442. In Masses with several lessons (nos. 467-468), the commemorations and other collects are placed after the collect which precedes the last lesson or the epistle; and only this collect is counted in computing the number of collects.

443. For the commemoration of a feria, the Mass of which has several lessons, the first collect is taken, namely one that has been said at lauds.

III - Collects to be Said under a Single Conclusion with the Collect of the Mass

444. A second collect is added to the collect of the Mass under a single conclusion only if there is question of:
   a) a ritual collect (no. 447);
   b) the collect of an impeded votive Mass of the 1st or 2nd class (nos. 330c, 343c);
   c) another collect expressly indicated or granted by the rubrics as one to be said under a single conclusion with the collect of the Mass (nos. 110, 355, 449, 451, 453).

445. Only one other collect may be said under a single conclusion with the collect of the Mass.
If, according to the rubrics, several collects were to be said under a single conclusion with the collect of the Mass, only one is kept, according to the order described above, no. 444; the rest are omitted.

446. A collect to be said under a single conclusion with the collect of the Mass is counted as one with the collect; and it is to be said also in sung Masses.

IV - Ritual Collects

447. By “ritual collect” is meant a collect to be said in a Mass which is connected with the following blessings or consecrations:
   a) the consecration of a bishop;
   b) the conferral of holy orders;
   c) the blessing of an abbot;
   d) the blessing of an abbess;
   e) the blessing and the consecration of virgins
   f) the blessing of a cemetery;
   g) the reconciliation of a church;
   h) the reconciliation of a cemetery.
These collects, which are found among the votive Masses for various intentions and occasions, are always to be added to the collect of the Mass under a single conclusion.

448. In Masses in which a ritual collect is added, all other collects except privileged commemorations are excluded.

V - The Collects on the Day of Coronation of the Pope and on the Anniversaries of the Pope and of the Diocesan Bishop

449. On the day of the coronation of the pope and on its anniversary, and on the anniversary of the election or the consecration or the transferral of the diocesan bishop (once, that is, on the day chosen by the bishop himself), in all Masses except those of the dead, the collect for the pope or for the bishop is added under a single conclusion with the collect of the day, provided a liturgical day listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence does not occur (see no. 363).

450. Whenever it is impeded, the collect for the pope or for the bishop is transferred to the next day not so impeded, in the same way in which the conventual Mass for the same anniversaries is transferred in cathedral and collegiate churches (no. 364).

VI - The Collect for the Priest Himself on the Anniversary of His Own Ordination to the Priesthood

451. On the anniversary of his own ordination to the priesthood, every priest may add the collect for himself to the collect of the Mass under a single conclusion, provided a liturgical day listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence does not occur.

452. Whenever it is impeded, the collect for the priest himself may be transferred to the next day not so impeded.

VII - The Collect “For the Propagation of the Faith”

453. On the next to last Sunday of October, or on another Sunday designated by the local ordinary as being “for the missions,” in all Masses, the collect “For the Propagation of the Faith” is added to the collect of the Mass under a single conclusion, except on the days listed under nos. 1, 2, 3 and 8 in the table of precedence.

VIII - The Oratio Imperata

454. By “oratio imperata” is meant a collect which the local ordinary may order to be said when a grave need or calamity of a public character occurs.

455. Any collect from the Mass which may be celebrated as votive Masses, or from the prayers for various intentions and occasions, or from the Mass and prayers for the departed, may be prescribed by the local ordinary as an oratio imperata.

456. It is most fitting that the local ordinary do not impose on oratio imperata as a permanent thing, but only for a really serious reason and for a period not exceeding the time of real need.

457. The oratio imperata:
   a) may be only one;
   b) must be said by all priests celebrating Mass in the churches and oratories, even exempt ones, of the diocese;
   c) is never said under a single conclusion with the collect of the Mass, but after the privileged commemorations;
   d) is prohibited on all liturgical days of the 1st and 2nd class, in votive Masses of the 1st and 2nd class, in sung Masses and whenever the privileged commemorations complete the established number for a particular day.

458. An oratio imperata for the departed is said only on ferias of the 4th class and in low votive or Requiem Masses of the 4th class.

459. In a public calamity or necessity which of its nature persists for a rather long time (for example, war, plague, and the like), the local ordinary may indeed impose a suitable oratio imperata for the whole time of the unfortunate event; but this collect:
   a) is said only on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays;
   b) is prohibited on the same days and in the same Masses specified above, no. 457d.

460. If an urgent, grave need or calamity of a public character occurs, and there is not time to approach the local ordinary, the pastor may order the appropriate collect to be said for the three successive days within the boundaries of his parish, even in exempt churches and oratories. This prayer is prohibited on the same days and in the same Masses as a prayer ordered by the local ordinary (no. 457-d); which latter, if it was to be said, is omitted.

IX - The Votive Collect

461. Every priest may add one collect if he so chooses in all low non-conventual Masses on liturgical days of the 4th class.

462. The votive collect may be chosen from the Masses which may be celebrated as votive Masses, or from prayers for various intentions and occasions, or from Masses and prayers for the departed.

463. This collect is put in the last place, after the other collects, but it must not bring the number of collects to more than three.

464. A votive collect for the departed may be added in low non-conventual Requiem Masses of the 4th class.

465. In the collect A cunctis (From all dangers), either the titular of one’s own church, or any principal patron, or the founder or the title of the order of congregation may be named. For the rest, the rubrics found in the missal for this collect should be observed.

E. The Lessons and the Rest up to the Gospel

466. After the collects, the epistle is said, and Deo gratias is the response at the end.

467. One lesson precedes the epistle:
   a) on ember Wednesdays;
   b) on Wednesday of the 4th week of Lent;
   c) on Wednesday of Holy Week.
Deo gratias is answered at the end of this lesson.

468. Five lessons precede the epistle on ember Saturdays; and Deo gratias is answered at the end of each lesson except after the lesson from the prophet Daniel.
All the lessons with their collects and verses must always be said in conventual Masses and in Masses during which holy orders are conferred. In other Masses, whether sung or low Masses, it is permissible to say only the first collect, corresponding to the office, with the Flectamus genua if it is to be said, and the first lessons with its verses; then, after Dominus vobiscum, Et cum spiritu tuo and Oremus is said in the usual way, to say the second collect without the Flectamus genua, followed by other commemorations that may occur; and, omitting the subsequent lessons with their verses and collects, to proceed at once to the last lesson or the epistle with the tract following it and, on the Saturday after Pentecost, with the sequence.

469. After the epsitle is said the gradual, the alleluia with its verses or the tract, as indicated in its place in the missal.

470. The sequence is said before the last alleluia or after the tract. It is omitted in votive Masses. With regard to the sequence Dies irae, the rules laid down in no. 399 are to be observed.

471. At the beginning of the gospel is said Dominus vobiscum and the response Et cum spiritu tuo; then Sequentia (or Initium) sancti Evangelii secundum N. and the response Gloria tibi, Domine; and the response at the end is Laus tibi, Christe.

472. In Holy Week, before the reading of the history of the Lord’s Passion, the Dominus vobiscum is not said, nor the Sequentia sancti Evangelii, Gloria tibi, Domine, but Passio Domini nostri Jesu Christi secundum N. and Laus tibi, Christe is not answered at the end.

473. In sung Masses, everything sung or read by the deacon or the subdeacon or a lector in virtue of his own office is omitted by the celebrant.

474. After the gospel, especially on Sundays and holy days of obligation, a short homily should be preached to the people if it is convenient. The homily, however, if it is preached by a priest other than the celebrant, must not be superimposed on the celebration of the Mass, preventing the participation of the faithful. In such case, therefore, the celebration of the Mass should be suspended, to be resumed only after the homily is completed.

F. The Creed

475. After the gospel or after the homily, the creed is said:
   a) every Sunday, even if the office of the Sunday yields to some feast, or a votive Mass of the 2nd class is celebrated;
   b) on feasts of the 1st class and in votive Masses of the 1st class;
   c) on 2nd class feasts of the Lord and of the Blessed Virgin Mary;
   d) throughout the octaves of Christmas, Easter and Pentecost even on the occurring feasts and in votive Masses;
   e) on the birthdays of the apostles and the evangelists and on the feasts of St. Peter’s Chair and of St. Barnabas, apostle.

476. The creed is not said:
   a) in the Chrism Mass and the Mass of the Lord’s Supper on Thursday of Holy Week, and in the Mass of the Easter vigil;
   b) on feasts of the 2nd class, except those listed above, nos. 475c and e;
   c) in votive Masses of the 2nd class;
   d) in festive and votive Masses of the 3rd and 4th class;
   e) by reason of any commemoration occurring in the Mass;
   f) in Masses of the dead.

G. The Antiphon at the Offertory and the Secret Prayers

477. After the creed or, if the creed is not to be said, after the gospel or the homily, Dominus vobiscum is said, the response Et cum spiritu tuo, and Oremus; then the antiphon at the offertory, which is lacking only in the Mass of the Easter vigil.

478. In paschaltide an Alleluia is added to the antiphon at the offertory unless it already has one. The Alleluia which is sometimes found at the end of the antiphon at the offertory is kept outside of paschaltide, except from Septuagesima to Easter.

479. The offering of the host and of the chalice and the subsequent actions are done as in the ordinary of the Mass.

480. The “secret” prayer is said silently, without Dominus vobiscum or Oremus. The number of secret prayers said is the same as the number of collects said in the first part of the Mass. They are said in the same order and concluded in the same manner as the other prayers.

481. The conclusion of the last secret prayer is said silently up to the words Per omnia saecula saeculorum, which are pronounced aloud.

H. The Preface

482. The preface is said which is proper to each Mass; if there is no proper one, the preface of the season is said, or the common one.

483. No commemoration occurring in the Mass brings along a proper preface.

484. The preface of Christmas is said:
   a) as proper in the Masses of Christmas and of its octave, and on the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary;
   b) as of the season, within the octave of Christmas, even in Masses which would otherwise have a proper preface, except in those Masses which have a proper preface of the divine mysteries or persons; and from January 2 to 5.

485. The preface of the Epiphany of our Lord is said:
   a) as proper in the Mass of the feast of the Epiphany and of the commemoration of the baptism of our Lord Jesus Christ;
   b) as of the season on the days from January 7 to 13.

486. The preface of Lent is said:
   a) as proper in Masses of the season from Ash Wednesday to Saturday before First Passion Sunday;
   b) as of the season in the rest of the Masses which are celebrated during that season and lack a proper preface.

487. The preface of the Holy Cross is said:
   a) as proper in Masses of the season from the 1st Sunday of the Passion to Thursday of the Lord’s Supper; in Masses both festive and votive of the holy cross, of the Lord’s Passion, of the Most Precious Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, of the Most Holy Redeemer;
   b) as of the season in all Masses from First Passion Sunday to Wednesday of Holy Week which lack a proper preface.

488. The preface of the Chrism Mass is said on Thursday of the Lord’s Supper, in its own Mass.

489. The Preface of Easter is said:
   a) as proper in Masses of the season from the Mass of the Easter vigil to the vigil of the Ascension of our Lord;
   b) as of the season in the rest of the Masses which are celebrated during that season and lack a proper preface.

490. The preface of the Ascension of our Lord is said:
   a) as proper on the feast of the Ascension of our Lord;
   b) as of the season in all Masses from Friday after the Ascension to Friday before the vigil Pentecost which lack a proper preface.

491. The preface of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus is said in festive and votive Masses of the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus.

492. The preface of our Lord Jesus Christ the King is said in festive and votive Masses of our Lord Jesus Christ the King.

493. The preface of the Holy Spirit is said:
   a) as proper in Masses of the season from the vigil of Pentecost to the following Saturday, and in festive and votive Masses of the Holy Spirit;
   b) as of the season in the rest of the Masses which are celebrated during that season and lack a proper preface.

494. The preface of the Most Holy Trinity is said:
   a) as proper in the Mass of the feast and in votive Masses of the Most Holy Trinity;
   b) as of the season on the Sundays of Advent and on all Sundays of the 2nd class outside of Christmas and Paschaltide.

495. The preface of the Blessed Virgin Mary is said in festive and votive Masses of the Blessed Virgin Mary, except on the feast of the Purification of the Blessed Virgin Mary.

496. The preface of St. Joseph is said in festive and votive Masses of St. Joseph.

497. The preface of the apostles is said in festive and votive Masses of the apostles and evangelists.

498. The common preface is said in Masses which lack a proper preface and are not to take a preface of the season.

499. The preface of the dead is said in Masses of the dead.

I. The Canon of the Mass and the Rest to the Postcommunion

500. After the preface and the Sanctus, the canon of the Mass is said silently, as in the ordinary of the Mass.

501. Whenever as change occurs in the Communicantes, the Hanc igitur and the Qui pridie, this is noted in its place in the proper Masses.
Within the octaves of Christmas, Easter and Pentecost, the proper Communicantes and Hanc igitur are said also in Masses which are not of the octave, even if they have their own preface.

502. The proper time for distributing holy communion to the faithful is within the Mass, after the communion of the celebrating priest, who himself distributes it to those who seek it, unless it is appropriate by reason of the great number of communicants that he be helped by another priest or priests.
It is altogether improper, however, that holy communion be distributed by another priest, outside of the proper time of communion, at the same altar at which the Mass is being celebrated.
On the other hand, it is also permissible for a good reason to distribute holy communion immediately before or after Mass, or even outside of the time of Mass. In such cases the form prescribed in the Roman ritual tit. 5, ch. 2, nos. 1-10, is used.

503. Whenever holy communion is distributed within the Mass, when the celebrant has consumed the most sacred Blood, the Confiteor and the absolution are omitted, but the celebrant says the Ecce Agnus Dei and says the Domine, non sum dignus three times, and then proceeds immediately to the distribution of the holy Eucharist.

504. When the Canon and all the rest up to the communion have been completed, the antiphon at the communion is said, and an Alleluia is added at the end if it is paschaltide, unless it already has one. The Alleluia which is sometimes found at the end of this antiphon is kept outside of paschaltide, except from Setuagesima to Easter.

505. The postcommunion prayers are said to the same number and in the same manner and order as the collects in the first part of the Mass.

506. In Masses of the ferias of Lent and passiontide, except for the sacred triduum, when the last postcommunion prayer has been said, there is added the prayer over the people, which is always said with its own conclusion, and to which is prefixed Oremus. Humiliate capita vestra Deo. This prayer is to be said even when there have already been three postcommunion prayers.

L. The Conclusion of the Mass

507. At the end of the Mass is said Ite, missa est, to which is answered Deo gratias.
However:
   a) in the evening Mass of the Lord’s Supper, which is followed by the solemn reposition of the Blessed Sacrament, and in other Masses which are followed by a procession, Benedicamus Domino is said and the response is Deo gratias;
   b) within the octave of Easter, in Masses of the season, a double Alleluia is added to the Ite, missa est and to the Deo gratias following it;
   c) in Masses of the dead, Requiescant in pace is said, and the response is Amen.

508. When the Placeat has been said, the blessing is given. The blessing is omitted only when Benedicamus Domino or Requiescant in pace has been said.

509. For the last gospel in any Mass, the beginning of the gospel according to St. John is regularly taken.
On 2nd Passion Sunday or Palm Sunday, however, in all Masses which do not follow the blessing of branches and procession the last gospel is proper.

510. The last gospel is omitted altogether:
   a) in Masses in which the Benedicamus Domino has been said according to no. 507a;
   b) on the feast of Christmas, at the third Mass;
   c) on 2nd Passion Sunday or Palm Sunday, in the Mass which follows the blessing of branches and procession;
   d) in the Mass of the Easter vigil;
   e) in Masses of the dead followed by the absolution over the coffin or catafalque;
   f) in certain Masses following certain consecrations, according to the rubrics of the Roman pontifical.

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IX - What Is to be said aloud and what quietly in the Mass

511. In a low Mass the following are said aloud:
   a) the words In nomine Patris, etc.; the psalm Iudicda me, Deus, with its antiphon; the Confiteor and what follows up to the Oremus inclusive; but the prayers Aufer a nobis and Oramus te, Domine are said quietly;
   b) the antiphon as the introit with its verse and the Gloria Patri, and the Kyrie, eleison; c) the hymn Gloria in excelsis;
   d) the Dominus vobiscum, Oremus, Flectamus genua, Levate, the collects;
   e) the lessons, the epistle, the gradual, the tract, the Alleluia with its verse, the sequence and the gospel;
   f) the creed;
   g) the Dominus vobiscum, Oremus and the antiphon at the offertory, and the words Orate, fratres;
   h) the preface and the Sanctus-Benedictus;
   i) the words Nobis quoque peccatoribus; the Lord’s Prayer with its preface; the Per omnia saecula saeculorum and the Pax Domini sit semper vobiscum; the Agnus Dei, etc.; the words Domine, non sum dignus before the communion of the celebrating priest; the formulas at the communion of the faithful; the antiphon at the communion; the Dominus vobiscum and the post communions; and the words Humilitate capita vestra Deo and the prayer over the people;
   j) the Ite, missa est or Benadicamus Domino or Requiescant in pace; the blessing and the last gospel.
The rest is said quietly.

512. The priest must take great care to pronounce the words that are to be spoken aloud distinctly and becomingly. He should not go so fast that he cannot pay attention to what he is reading, nor so slowly as to become tedious to his hearers. Nor, if he is celebrating at a secondary altar, should he raise his voice so as to disturb others who may happen to be celebrating in the same church at that time; nor should he lower it so much that he cannot be heard by those nearby. He must pronounce the words that are to be said quietly in such a way that he hears himself but is not heard by those nearby.

513. In a solemn Mass the celebrant:
   a) sings: the Dominus vobiscum whenever it occurs, except in the verses after the Confiteor; the collects; the Oremus before the antiphon at the offertory; the Per omnia saecula saeculorum with the preface; the Per omnia saecula saeculorum with the Pater noster and its preface; the Per omnia saecula saeculorum with the Pax Domini;
   b) begins in chant: the Gloria and the Credo, when they are to be said;
   c) says aloud the formulas at the communion of the faithful and the words of the blessing at the end of the Mass;
   d) says in a suitable voice the parts to which the sacred ministers are to respond;
   e) says quietly the other words which are said aloud in a low Mass;
   f) omits what is pronounced by the sacred ministers or by a lector.

514. In sung Masses, that is, those sung without sacred ministers, the celebrant must observe what has been said in the preceding section, and he must sing the parts proper to the sacred ministers. The epistle may be sung by a lector. If it is not sung by a lector, it will be satisfactory for the celebrant to read it without chant; the celebrant may, however, sing the epistle in the usual way.

515. The solemn tone is used in the chant of the collects, the preface, and the Lord’s Prayer:
   a) on Sundays;
   b) in festive Masses and in the Mass of the Saturday office of the Blessed Virgin Mary;
   c) on the vigils of the 1st class;
   d) on Thursday of the Lord’s Supper and in the Mass of the Easter vigil;
   e) throughout octaves;
   f) in votive Masses of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd class.

516. The ferial tone is used:
   a) on ferias;
   b) on vigils of the 2nd and 3rd class;
   c) in votive Masses of the 4th class;
   d) in Masses of the dead.

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X - The Order of Kneeling, Sitting and Standing at Mass

517. In a low Mass the celebrating priest genuflects:
   a) whenever it is noted either in the ritual to be observed in celebrating Mass, or in the ordinary of the Mass, or in the proper of a particular Mass, that he is to genuflect;
   b) when the Blessed Sacrament is uncovered on the altar, as often as he approaches or leaves the middle of the altar.

518. In sung Masses the celebrating priest genuflects:
   a) whenever he is to genuflect in a low Mass; but at words which are to be sung by others, he does not genuflect while he himself is reading those words, but while they are being sung either by the ministers or by a choir, according to the rubrics;
   b) at the words Et incarnatus est in the creed, however, the celebrating priest always genuflects when he recites these words; and when they are being sung, if he is not sitting, he kneels again; but if he is sitting, he does not genuflect, but only uncovers and bows his head profoundly, except in the three Masses of Christmas and in the Mass of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, in which all kneel while these words are being sung.

519. The ministers in sung Masses always genuflect with the celebrating priest, except for the subdeacon holding the book at the gospel, and the acolytes holding the candles, who do not genuflect at that time. And when the deacon sings the words at which a genuflection is to be made, he himself genuflects toward the book, while the celebrant and all others genuflect towards the altar. At the consecration, the ministers kneel on both knees.

520. In the choir, those who are not prelates kneel at the Confiteor with its psalm and at the celebrant’s blessing at the end of the Mass. Prelates and canons, however, bow their head profoundly at the blessing.

521. Moreover all, including prelates, kneel in choir:
   a) at the consecration;
   b) at the communion of the faithful;
   c) in the Masses of Advent, Lent and passiontide, of the ember days in September, of vigils of the 2nd and 3rd class outside of paschaltide, and in Mass of the dead; at the collects before the epistle, when the Dominus vobiscum has been said; from the end of the Sanctus up to but not including the Pater noster with its preface; and at the postcommunion prayers and the prayer over the people;
   d) whenever words which require a genuflection are sung by the ministers or by the choir.

522. Likewise in choir all genuflect on one knee:
   a) while the celebrant recites the words of the creed Et incarnatus est etc.;
   b) while he says the words of the last gospel Et Verbum caro factum est.

523. In a solemn Mass the celebrant may sit between the deacon and the subdeacon near the altar at the epistle side while the Kyrie, eleison, the Gloria in excelsis, the sequence and the Credo are being sung. The rest of the time he stands at the altar, or genuflects, as above. These rules apply also to a sung Mass that is not solemn.

524. In the choir those who are actually singing do not sit, but the rest may sit:
   a) when the celebrant is sitting;
   b) while the lessons and the epistle, the gradual, the tract and the Alleluia with its verse, and the sequence are being sung;
   c) from the offertory until the incensing of the choir or, if the choir is not incensed, until the preface;
   d) from the end of the communion until the Dominus vobiscum before the postcommunion.
At other times they stand, genuflect or kneel, as above.

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XI - The Prepartation of the Altar for Mass

525. The altar on which the most holy sacrifice of the Mass is to be celebrated must be wholly of stone, and duly consecrated; or at least it must have a stone slab, or an altar stone, likewise duly consecrated, large enough to hold the host and the greater part of the chalice; or again, by apostolic indult, an antimension, duly blessed.

526. The altar must be covered by three cloths, duly blessed, of which one must be long enough to hang to the ground at the sides.

527. On the altar, at the middle, there must be a cross of adequate size with the image of the Crucified, and on each side of it candlesticks with lighted candles, to the number required by the kind of Mass. The so-called “tables of secret prayers” or altar cards are to be put on the altar also, but only for the time of the Mass; and, at the epistle side, a cushion or a lectern for supporting the Missal.

528. At the epistle side, on a table meant for this purpose, cruets of wine and water with a dish and a towel should be prepared, also a little bell, and a paten for the communion of the faithful.

529. Nothing whatsoever is to be put on the altar which does not pertain to the sacrifice of the Mass or to the adornment of the altar itself.

530. Where the custom prevails of lighting a candle, near the altar, from the consecration to the communion, that custom should be preserved.


Fr. Kevin Seasoltz, The New Liturgy: A Documentation, 1903-1966. Herder & Herder, NY, 1966, pp.346-382.

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